Youth: a gift that we must achieve
As we get older, the risk of getting all kind of diseases increases progressively. Therefore the goal of research on growth and differentiation factors is to succeed in intervening on aging process and preventing pathologies caused by cellular degeneration.
Aging is not a disease but a natural process triggered by the cells aging. With no telomerase activity the telomere of the chromosomes of the cells in active proliferation shorten progressively; when telomere length falls below a critical threshold, stem cells stop dividing and die. Therefore elderly telomeres are shorter than those of young people. Longevity is a balance between genes and environment, when this relationship is meant as a way in which life habits interact with genetic heritage. In this sense we must see the aging process too, i.e. always bearing in mind that genetic heritage can be modified consecutively.
Today thanks to the growth and differentiation factors we are able to keep the telomeres always long, even when the cell divides. Growth factors allow the cell to make her telomere re-grow as it spontaneously occurs in youth.
Cellular degeneration due to aging is not exactly the same for everyone in the same way, these are the average age for the aging of individual organs:
Therefore these factors, which can only be obtained in specific and well-defined moments of stem cell differentiation, not only increase the duration of life, but keep the cells young, preventing them from aging. This is a very important point, considering that if we only lengthen the life span, but we leave cells grow old, then the risk is to be at an old age having numerous health problems and a considerable physical decay. Fortunately the factors we isolated do not allow cells to age and thus the increase of life span can be associated with a good psycho-physical condition. At this moment the factors that had shown an anti-aging activity have been used to prepare specific creams. These creams have proved to be highly effective as they have been able to significantly reduce wrinkles on the face and décolletage. These results, which were obtained with the help of factors isolated during the differentiation of specific types of stem cells, are almost impossible to obtain by artificial manipulations of the genetic code. This is because different genetic manipulations can’t transfer complete information able to increase the duration of life and at the same time to block cellular senescence. At this point the limits of scientific reductionism emerge even more clearly.
Integrative treatment for the prevention of aging: cell growth and differentiation factors
Protein analysis of Zebrafish embryo extract,
A proteins analysis of embryo extract from zebrafish embryo has been performed. A suspension of the glycerol-alcohol solution was analysed by means of the monodimensional electrophoresis gel (SDS-PAGE). As shown in the figure below, there have been identified three major groups in all 5 phases extracted, distinguished by their molecular weight: over 45 kDa, about 25-35 kDa and below 20 kDa. In any case, the relative amount of proteins is different in the 5-stage samples.
Below is the list of proteins that have been identified by Biava et al. with mass spectrometry analysis. The asterisk (*) lists the proteins never described before in the Zebrafish embryo:
Dr. Pier Mario Biava on Telomeres:
“Telomeres get shorter each time the cells divide. When the telomere becomes too short, the chromosome reaches a critical length and the cell can no longer replicate. This means that the cell ages and dies. However, GROWTH and DIFFERENTIATION FACTORS can be a very effective tool to promote cellular senescence antagonists in a physiological way. The result is a healthy cell and potentially an inversion of the aging process”
TELOMERS are essential parts of human cells that influence the way we age. Telomeres represent sort of a “cap” of DNA that protects cells from errors during their replication. Over time this hood tends to shorten and lose its protective properties. Thanks to the factors of Zebrafish this problem can be prevented by preserving telomers.